Dependent clauses
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- a clause that does not make sense on its own

Non-finite
Dependent clauses -> Non-finite
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- contains a non-finite verb phrase (with head verb in inifinitive, progressive tense (ing-form) or past participle)
- can have syntactic function as adjectival (postmodifying a noun), nominal (Subject or Object) or adverbial (Adverbial) dependent clause

Infinitive clause
Dependent clauses -> Non-finite -> Infinitive clause
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- contains a verb phrase in infinitive
- can be both with or without to
- can have syntactic function as adjectival (postmodifying a noun), nominal (Subject or Object) or adverbial (Adverbial) dependent clause

Ing-clause
Dependent clauses -> Non-finite -> Ing-clause
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- contains only one verb in the progressive aspect (ing-form) (not "was going", only "going")
- can have syntactic function as adjectival (postmodifying a noun), nominal (Subject or Object) or adverbial (Adverbial) dependent clause

Past participle clause
Dependent clauses -> Non-finite -> Past participle clause
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- contains only one verb in past participle tense (not "have gone" (present perfective), but only "gone" (past participle)
- can have syntactic function as adjectival (postmodifying a noun), nominal (Subject or Object) or adverbial (Adverbial) dependent clause

Finite
Dependent clauses -> Finite
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- contains a finite verb phrase
- can have syntactic function as adjectival relative (modifying noun), nominal (subject or object) or adverbial (Adverbial) clause

Adjectival relative clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Adjectival relative clause
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- is used to modify a noun by giving more information about it (non-restrictive) or tell it apart from other nouns (restrictive)
- always starts with a relative pronoun (who, which, whose, whom, that or Ø (Zero relative pronoun)) (norwegian "som")
- relative clause refers back to an antecedent (a noun, usually head of a noun phrase) in the main clause

Restrictive relative clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Adjectival relative clause -> Restrictive relative clause
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- the restrictive relative clause is telling who, which or of what type the antecedent is
- starts with who, whom, whose, which, that (realtive meaning, "som") and Ø (Zero relative pronoun)
- usually not preceeded by commas, parenthesis or dash
- example: We are reading the book which is about grammar. (antecedent: the book, restrictive relative clause: which is about grammar)

Non-restrictive relative clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Adjectival relative clause -> Non-restrictive relative clause
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- gives additional information about the antecedent
- starts with who, whom, whose or which
- always preceeded by a comma, parenthesis or dash and usually followed by one (or a full stop)
- Example 1: Einar, who is writing this text, is getting bored. (Antecedent: Einar, non-restrictive relative clause: who is writing this text)
- Example 2: Boredom plagues Einar, who is writing this text. (Antecedent: Einar, non-restrictive relative clause: who is writing this text)

Sentential relative clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Adjectival relative clause -> Non-restrictive relative clause -> Sentential relative clause
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- not postmodifying one single noun (antecedent), but gives a comment to the facts or situations in the main clause on a whole
- functions as disjunct adverbials
- always starts with which
- always preceeded by a comma
- considered non-restrictive since the information given is not necessary to understand who or what the antecedent is
- Example: Einar has written a lot about dependent clauses, which is a vast subject. (no one noun is the antecedent, which refers back to the whole situation in the main clause, sentential relative clause: which is a vast subject)

Nominal clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Nominal clause
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- functions as Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Subject Predicative or Object Predicative in the full sentence
- starts with that (meaning "at") or a question word (what, who, where, when, why, whatever, wherever, whenever, whoever... and how)
- is not preceeded by commas

That-clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Nominal clause -> That-clause
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- functions as Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Subject Predicative or Object Predicative in the full sentence
- starts with the conjunction that meaning "at" (not the relative pronoun that, meaning "som")
- sometimes that is not present, but if it could be (meaning "at), then it is a that-clause
- no commas before or after
- example 1: Einar says (that) he is tired of grammar now. (That-clause: (that) he is tired of grammar now, syntactic function: Direct Object)
- example 2: That he is tired of grammar now is an understatement. (That-clause: That he is tired of grammar now, syntactic function: Subject)

Nominal relative clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Nominal clause -> Nominal relative clause
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- functions as Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Subject Predicative or Object Predicative in the full sentence
- starts with a wh-word (pronoun or adverb): what, who, where, whatever, whoever, wherever...
- similar to relative clause, but contains its own antecedent, does not refer back to the main clause
- if the pronoun or adverb that starts the clause can be replaced by "the thing that/wich", then it is a nominal relative clause, not an adjectival relative clause
- example 1: Grammar is what it is. (Nominal relative clause: What it is, functions as Subject Predicative, we could say "Grammar is the thing that it is", therefore, it is a nominal relative clause, not an adjectival relative clause, what it is contains the word what refers to (the antecedent): it, which is another proof this is not an adjectival relative clause, but a nominal relative clause)

Indirect questions
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Nominal clause -> Indirect questions
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- functions as Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Subject Predicative or Object Predicative in the full sentence
- starts with a question word like when, where, why, how, if, what, whether...
- we can make a direct question out of the whole sentence
- Example 1: I ask myself where she is. ("where she is" functions as Direct Object and is a nominal clause. We could say "Where is she?", therefore it is an indirect question.)
- Example 2: The question is what the question is. ("what the question is" functions as Subject Predicative and is a nominal clause. We could say "What is the question?" in stead, therefore "what the question is" is an indirect question)

Adverbial clause
Dependent clauses -> Finite -> Adverbial clause
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- functions as adjunct adverbial in syntactic analysis, describing place, manner and time (or part of a direct object, postmodifying it)
- starts with a subordinating conjunction such as because, as, if, since, when, while, wheras, although, after, before, even if, though...
- Example 1: Einar finished his grammar when it was time for dinner. ("when it was time for dinner" functions as adjunct adverbial in the syntactic analysis, describing time)
- Example 2: It is unecessary to give two examples if the material is already understood. ("if the material is already understood" functions adjunct adverbial, describing how it is unecessary to give two examples (manner). One could also view it as part of a longer Direct Object: "to give two examples if the material is already understood", postmodifying "to give two examples", but it is easier to just think of it as and adjunct adverbial.)

Verbless clauses
Dependent clauses -> Verbless clauses
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- dependent clauses without a verb
- clauses like: When in doubt, ... , Upon further inspection, ...